12. Economic system of the Qur’an1
The Qur’an prohibits interest (riba) in the strongest terms. Therefore, the pillar of an economic system based on the Qur’an must be fundamentally opposed – not only to the total rejection of interest in all forms – but also to whatever that bears any resemblance to it. The following verses give some indication of the Qur’anic requirements:
(2:278) O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury, if ye are (in truth) believers.
(2:279) And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger. And if ye repent, then ye have your principal (without interest). Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged.
(3:130) O ye who believe! Devour not usury, doubling and quadrupling (the sum lent). Observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful.
(4:61) And of their taking usury when they were forbidden it, and of their devouring people’s wealth by false pretences, We have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a painful doom.
(30:39) That which ye give in usury in order that it may increase on (other) people’s property hath no increase with Allah; but that which ye invest as zakat, seeking Allah’s countenance, hath increase manifold.
Note: In verse 30:39, the phrase ‘invest in zakat‘ has been used in place of the traditional translation ‘give in charity’. Section 12.3.iii gives the reasons for this.
Today, most modern economies are based on interest to such an extent that it is difficult to imagine any economic activity where interest was not involved directly or indirectly. Many Muslims have attempted to resolve this contradiction between what the Qur’an demands and the principles of a modern economy, but as yet no viable system has been developed. The so-called Islamic countries which shook off the yoke of colonialism have remained intellectually and economically controlled from outside. The conclusion one comes to after such a long and singular failure on the part of such countries is that any suggested economic system cannot be implemented and tested without the prior establishment of a true Islamic State (see chapter 16).
During the early years of Islam (i.e. the first few hundred years) when the Qur’an was the only source of guidance for the Muslims, an economic system based on the Qur’an was well established, and without doubt this would have flourished even further with time, if only the Muslims had not deviated from the Qur’an, and thereby lost their status as a major world power. The vacuum which resulted from the Muslims’ neglect of the Qur’an and subsequent decline was filled by the West which, as we see today, has an economy largely based on interest.
The basis of the ideal economic system is in the Qur’an. As in most things, the Qur’an gives the fundamental principles and leaves the details to be filled in by human beings according to the need of the society.Â However, at no stage of their experience should human beings transgress the fundamental limits set up by the Creator.
12.2 The present day’s global economic control
The following section (12.2.i) is taken from an article named, Islam: Taking root in Europe, by Sahib Mustaqim Bleher. The section following (12.2.ii) includes part of an article published in The Guardian of 9th Jan. ’87, by F. Clairmonte and J. Cavanagh, on the unprecedented debt crisis facing the Third World, preceded by my own comments.
Every ideology has its basic underlying philosophy: Capitalism emphasises the individual ‘free will’, Communism equates the value of man with his productive capacity, and Modern Philosophy stresses the relativity of everything.Â The underlying philosophical notion of Islam is balance. When Allah created the world, everything was in its right place. Through the subsequent interaction of numerous entities and forces in the world, this order is continuously being disturbed. The balance will be lost, unless and until this imbalance is redressed, and humanity returned onto the right, straight and even path. This principle can be applied to all spheres of human experience. The over-rating of material advancement has stifled spiritual advancement; as a consequence, uncontrolled pollution has disturbed ecological equilibrium; greed has produced a world of contrasts through an unfair distribution of resources; the world’s leading societies’ careless comfort has brought war to the doorsteps of countless nations. In all these examples the visible imbalance can be equated with the injustice of some towards others. To restore the balance inevitably means fighting injustice. Islam, therefore, can never be a mere private religion practised in homes and monasteries. If it is not political, it is not Islam.
The Qur’an’s account of Pharonic society tells us that human society rests on three pillars: The social, political and military sphere (represented by Pharaoh); the economic sphereÂ (represented by Qaroon/Corah); and the ideological sphere of education, religion and media-propaganda (represented by Haman). The three are inter-related, and the fight against oppression will remain unsuccessful, if directed against one without the other two. This is what has happened in the past. When various bands of nationalism within the Muslim world shook off the yoke of colonialism, the result was the creation of countries which got rid of a foreign political elite, but remained intellectually and economically controlled from outside. The Islamic revival of various Muslim movements around the world concentrated exclusively on the spiritual aspects of Islam, the need for the refinement of the individual’s character, and was consequently unable to free anybody from political and economic bondage. Muslim attempts at economic reforms were limited to minor issues, for they did not address the question of political and media control. It seems that most, if not all, the Muslim movements over the last few centuries have been fooled by Western divide-and-rule-policy in that they adopted a dialectically and analytically fragmented approach in their effort, rather than the holistic approach that Islam demands. Modern materialistic society has such refined mechanisms of control in place that its injustice can be passed off as a just cause. Its rejection of divine law and emphasis of individualism renders the individual isolated and helpless against bureaucratic human regulation. Its media propaganda machine turns falsehood into truth by effectively filtering all available information to a permitted norm as well as twisting the perception of events through classic double-speak. Its ever growing drugs and narcotic industry sedates people to a point where they become indifferent to the suffering of others, unable to relate, unmotivated, and turn all their potential energies for change inwardly against themselves. Its political institutions provide justification of the most perverse deeds of injustice by an elaborate process ofÂ “decision-making” which effectively rubber stamps any action the elite wishes to take. Its economic system clearly uses the instrument of interest for continuing re-distribution of wealth away from its producers to a small clique of monopolists who have mortgaged the life of almost every individual on earth.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Present-day global economic control is a marvellous example of how the mind can be made to believe things that are not real. It started with the early goldsmiths who took people’s valuables for safe keeping in their vaults. They soon started to realise that none of the depositors ever asked for all the money/or monies back, but withdrew small portions of it at a time, and they could safely lend the remainder of people’s money against interest, as long as they kept enough to meet day-to-day demands. More than that, they could often get away with lending more than they had, as the recipient of a promissory note would not normally exchange it back into coin, but be happy with a title deed to coinage he thought was kept safely in the goldsmith’s vaults. Thus, the goldsmiths became the first bankers and gradually, by way of deception, defrauded more and more people out of their hard-earned property. With the wide-spread use of paper money, cheques, plastic cards and electronic money transfers, this business has taken on gigantic proportions, and bankers now control all significant enterprises including governments. As, historically, the money-lending profession was forbidden to Christians, and still is, or should be, forbidden to Muslims, Jewish families were the first to establish themselves in this business and to date control it almost exclusively. Little surprise, therefore, that Zionism almost always gets its way with governments who find themselves in ever-increasing debt.Â Â
In 1865 Abraham Lincoln stated his monetary policy: ‘Money is the creature of law, and the creation of the original issue of money should be maintained as the exclusive monopoly of national government.Â Money possesses no value to the State other than given to it by circulation[…]Â Government should stand behind its currency and credit and the bank deposits of the nation. No individual should suffer a loss of money through depreciation of inflated currency or bankruptcy. Government possessing the power to create and issue currency and credit as money […] need not and should not borrow capital at interest as a means of financing governmental work and public enterprise.’Â These words need no updating over a hundred years later. But Lincoln was assassinated, and money-lenders stayed in power. In America this power is exercised by the Federal Reserve which issues the nation’s money instead of the government. John F. Kennedy was about to take this right away from them, but then he, too, got assassinated. This money-power has upset the balance more than any other means of control. Fertile, self-sufficient countries were plunged into debt and made dependent on outside aid. Yet, the West’s income from interest payments is a multiple of Third World Aid dispatched by the West. Only the interest income goes on to the lenders, whereas the aid bill is footed by the people and their governments. Considering that this evil money-power is at the root of some of the worst injustice troubling our planet — war, pollution, starvation, social disorder — Muslims should be amongst the first to fight it. Considering that this creation of money out of nothing, this usurpation of wealth by crooked means is almost taking the shape of playing god – a sign of the Dajjal, the false Messiah — it should be the most important issue on the Muslim’s agenda. For good reason, interest has been forbidden in Islam. Yet Muslims happily pray in mosques built with interest money, and the so-called Islamic banks happily contend themselves with trying to beat the others at the game. Instead of offering a real alternative, they simply change the labels and shamelessly call it fair partnership, when they get half the profits of an entrepreneur’s hard labour after lending him some money, which cost them nothing.2
12.2.2 Unprecedented debt crisis facing the Third World
We now turn our attention to some of the Western nations who pride themselves on their ‘democracy’ and ‘freedom’, yet whose attitudes and behaviour towards other nations often lack both of these virtues in the extreme. The reason for this is that the people who govern these countries can only stay in power by promising a constantly rising standard of living, which in most cases is achieved by robbing the Third World. Most of these rich nations behave like money sharks. They corrupt the people who rule the Third World countries by giving huge loans for imports which in most cases the country does not need but accepts under political coercion. Thus, huge debts are built up under pressure. The political leaders can do very little to resist, since they correctly surmise that they would be liquidated and then replaced by people who would again be subservient to the rich nations. Very often these Third World leaders are pressurised to hand out contracts to the foreign countries by accepting huge bribes as well as by taking an undisclosed share of the profits. This has made it impossible for any genuine Third World leader, who wants to improve the well being of his countrymen, to succeed.
If such leaders somehow survive, then they are branded as communist or undemocratic in the press and every possible pressure is applied to get rid of them. I would be failing in my duty not to mentionÂ this great exploitation and the tragic consequences that are bound to follow. The money lending, and the huge interest that is collected, are crippling these countries. A point has been reached where the cumulative interest payments outweigh the original loan and the debt has become so big that it would be impossible to pay back the original debts, so that the interest payments will go on forever. The loans are designed so that the money sharks can go on making money out of the miseries of the Third World. The Church seems to have nothing to say about this global problem. Below I quoteÂ from an article published in The Guardian of 9th Jan ’87 by F. Clairmonte and J. Cavanagh on the unprecedented debt crisis facing the Third World. It is almost ten years since the article was published. The condition of Third World countries since then has gone from bad to worse, and the only reason for this, is the exploitation through the medium of interest payments, which the Qur’an forbids in no uncertain terms.
The Third World is facing an unprecedented financial crisis, with its debts growing exponentially whilst its export earnings are plummeting. Gigantic amounts of capital are thus flowing from the poor to the rich countries. The upshot is that in 1981, for the first time in post-war history, Third World countries have become net capital exporters. In other words their debt service payments exceeded new borrowing and rescheduling. Between 1981 and 1985 net capital export for Latin America moved from US$0.2 to US$42.4 billion or an 85 fold increase; in Africa from US$5.3 billion to US$21.5 billion, and Asia from US$1.7 billion to US$9.7 billion. These net capital flows exclude profit repatriations by Third World based transitional companies and capital flights, as well as Middle East exporters. If these additions were thrown into the scale the aggregate outflows would not be far short of US$230-240 billion. This is the sum four times larger than that of the Marshall Plan; and it must be emphasised, the Marshall Plan aid was repaid with interest to the United States. In contrast, this tribute from the poor to the rich countries will not be repaid. Aggravating this terrifying configuration is the direction of the international bank lending which topped US$216 billion in 1985. The industrial economies, as usual, absorbed almost the totality: US$194 as compared with US$119 billion in 1984. The under-developed took only US$3 billion (1984): a derisory sum amounting to around 2 per cent of their global interest payments. Of vital importance is the role played by the commodity price forecasts of the World Bank, which simply have no claim to scientific validity. The World Bank’s forecasts of commodity prices were generally higher than the actual price movements of all the commodities since 1980. The fraudulent nature of these World Bank forecasts — designed to boost the over-supply of commodities and thus lower prices — is being recognised by a growing body of intelligent technocrats in the Third World. The outcome, like a Greek tragedy, is ineluctable: Third World countries are literally being driven to market fatter and fatter volumes of commodities at lower and lower prices on the global market in return for higher priced goods and service imports. In fact, neither can the principal nor the interest ever be repaid. Nor is it desirable that the debt (interest and principal) should be repaid. Debt repudiation stands out as the only ethically feasible and rational solution for the Third World.3
Similar exploitation is suffered by the ordinary people even within the rich countries. Rules, similar to those used against the Third World are applied. The whole financial system is geared in such a way that it disadvantages the people who needs money as against those who already have the sources. Even the newspapers rarely publicise the enormous suffering that common people undergo at the hands of money sharks. Sadly the Church, too, is entirely silent on these issues.
No wonder Allah has forbidden usury and has clearly stated the need to use surplus wealth for the benefit of humanity.
12.3 Some important economic concepts used in the Qur’an
(Applicable until the time when Qur’anic Social Order is established).
Payments for fulfilment of certain obligation out of our income, such as out of a wage, aÂ dividend, a bill, etc. Sometimes sadaqaatÂ is also used as a charity.
Payments by way of investment, for the sake of economic development which essentially aims at making economic gains for the benefit of the society.
12.3.4 Business dealing and trading.
Once the Qur’anic social order is established the need for charity should disappear. However, during the transitional period, there will always be the need for charity, but Allah likes the affluent people to pay the charity voluntarily, and by way of expressing gratitude to their Creator. The following verses explain the concept of charity in a God-fearing society:
(2:177) […]And giveth his wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and those who ask and to set slaves free.
(76:8) And feed with food the needy wretch, the orphan and the prisoner, for love of Him.
(76:9) (Saying): We feed you, for the sake of Allah only. We wish for no reward nor thanks from you.
A selfless act to help the needy breeds two obvious elements in the society: firstly, the needy are helped in material terms which generates a feeling of cohesion in the society, and secondly, the donor gains a spiritual benefit in that his desire for material effects gets blunted which diverts him from obstructing the path of the society. Indeed, it causes a reversal in the direction of people’s greed when they come forward to give in charity as a matter of free will, and as an expression of their gratitude to the Creator.
Please see the following verses to understand this concept.
(9:60) The sadaqaat are only for the poor and the needy, and those who collect them, and those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and to free the captives and the debtors, and for the cause of Allah, and (for) the wayfarer; a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is Knower, Wise.
(9:103) Take alms of their wealth (sadaqaat), wherewith thou mayest purify them and mayest make them grow, and pray for them. Lo! Thy prayer is an assuagement for them. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
The scheme is simple to understand provided human beings believe that it is on account of the resources made available by the Creator that the material gains are forthcoming in the first place, and a share out of such gains belongs to Allah, and that this share is to be spent for the general welfare of the society. As such, the payment as sadaqaat in verses 9:60 and 9:103 has been termed as ‘for the cause of Allah’. In simple terms sadaqaat means the tax paid by the people and businesses of the state which must then be used for welfare spending. It must be noted that, like many Arabic words having multiple meanings, sadaqaat can also have other meanings including ‘charity’, and the meaning applicable in a particular case depends on the context in which it is used.
(57:18) Lo! Those who give sadaqaat, both men and women, and lend unto Allah a goodly loan, it will be doubled for them, and theirs will be a rich reward.
Verse 6:141 below explains when this Divine-share is supposed to be paid: on the day of harvesting. In today’s terms, it would mean the taxes that one must pay when one receives his pay.
(6:141) He it is Who produceth gardens trellised and untrellised, and the date-palm, and crops of divers flavour, and the olive and the pomegranate, like and unlike. Eat ye of the fruit thereof when it fruiteth, and pay the due thereof upon the harvest day, and be not prodigal. Lo! Allah loveth not the prodigals.This Payment for Allah is a payment to the Islamic State for the common welfare. By the same token payments to the Messenger in verses 58:12,13 means payments to the State for the general welfare (as the Messenger was then the collector on behalf of the State).
(58: 12) O ye who believe! When ye hold conference with the Messenger, offer sadaqaat before your conference. That is better and purer for you. But if ye cannot find (the wherewithal) then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
(58:13) Fear ye to offer sadaqaat before your conference? Then when ye do it not and Allah hath forgiven you, establish worship and invest in Zakat and obey Allah and His messenger. And Allah is Aware of what ye do.
It is important to note that Allah enjoins on Muslim men to consider marriage payment to their wives as a duty (4:24), and this payment has been named as sadaqaat (4:4). In this case sadaqaat is not a charity but an obligation which must be paid.
(4:24) […]And those of whom ye seek consent (by marrying them), give unto them their portions as duty. And there is no sin for you in what ye do by mutual agreement after the dutyÂ (hath been done). Lo! Allah is ever Knowing, Wise.
(4:4) And give unto the women (whom ye marry) free gift of their marriage portions (sadaqaat); but if they of their own accord remit unto you a part thereof, then ye are welcome to absorb it (in your wealth).
Mankind must understand the cardinal principle that a peaceful and a stable society will only come into being when there prevails a just socio-economic system. In such a system, wealth is like blood for the human body: blood must continuously circulate throughout the body, and must reach each and every cell of the body. Only then will the body continue to stay healthy. The hoarding of wealth is like thrombosis: an economic system will collapse if hoarding is allowed to permeate society. This is why Allah forbids hoarding of wealth as the following verses show.
(9:34) […]Those who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom.
(104:1-4) Woe unto every greedy, arrogant, one who hath gathered wealth (of this world) and arranged it. He thinketh that his wealth will render him immortal. Nay, but verily he will be flung into the Consuming One.
In a truly Islamic state there will be security for everybody, and hence any surplus wealth will be invested, thus avoiding the effect of hoarding. Also, Allah lays great stress upon the distribution of wealth of a deceased person, and the Qur’an contains extremely detailed laws of inheritance. This is a vital scheme whereby the wealth of the nation stays well distributed, and the formation of cartels is not possible. Unfortunately, Muslims devised ways and means to circumvent these vital economic measures by defining sadaqaat as voluntary charity and limiting Zakat to 2.5% of savings and accumulated assets so that the rich could hold on to their wealth. In contrast, the woman’s dowry (i.e. the marriage payment from their husband) in most cases remain an unclaimed contract, whereas it should be invested for the woman, as the maintenance of a family is the responsibility of the man. Further, women are often deprived of their inheritance from their parents’ side, in spite of the Qur’an’s clear injunction on this.
Literally, zakat means growth, purification and righteousness. Al-Shaukani gives the following definition: ‘Linguistically, zakah means growth: One says Zakahhaz-Zar meaning the plant grew. It can also mean purification. In Shariah (Islamic law) it implies both meanings. The first meaning is construed as to cause growth in wealth, or as to cause more reward or as to pertain to increasing wealth, such as the case in commerce and agriculture.’ 4
(30:39)The usury that is practised to increase some people’s wealth, does not gain anything with Allah. But if you invest in zakat, seeking Allah’s countenance, these are the ones who receive their reward manifold.
Both zakat and usury involve the investment of capital in order to seek material gains. But whereas zakat is a method of investment approved by Allah, usury is condemned. The above verse indicates the cardinal principle that the material gains resulting from the practice of usury gain nothing with Allah, whereas the gains, resulting from the practice of zakat, receive ‘Allah’s blessing’. Instead of following the straight interpretation, the Traditionalists went in the direction of linking zakat with verses 9:60 and 9:103 which are related to sadaqaat, and extracted an interpretation which led to charity collections being introduced by the State. They went so far as to fix the yardsticks for such charity collections, and to attribute the emergence of this practice to the Messenger of Allah. It is unimaginable that the Messenger of Allah would have introduced an economic system, whereby extracting 2.5% of the otherwise ill-gotten wealth would render it ‘pure’! After having demonstrated that zakat is something different from what had been ordained in verses 9:60 and 9:103, we come to verse 2:177 which indicates that even after spending in charity, out of own volition, there is something called ‘zakat‘ which will still be outstanding. Verse 22:41 ordains that the true believers are those who, when allowed power and influence, establish a system of ‘zakat‘ in their way of life.
(22:41) Those who, if We give them power in the land, establish worship and invest in zakat and enjoin kindness and forbid iniquity. And Allah’s is the sequel of events.
Verse 22:78 further confirms this Ordinance.
(22:78) […]So establish worship, invest in zakat, and hold fast to Allah. He is your protecting Friend. A blessed Patron and a blessed Helper !
Here is a list of references which deal with zakat directly: 2:43,83,110,177,277; 4:162; 5:12; 7:156; 9:5,11,18,71; 21:73; 22:41,78; 24:37,56; 27:3; 31:4; 33:33; 41:7.
Zakat prevents hoarding of money and causes the wealth to grow so that people can earn their living instead of depending on charity. Another way of looking at zakat is that if the spare cash is simply given away in charity then, in the long run, the person may not be able to give in charity but may himself become dependant on charity, due to his circumstances changing. However, if zakat is used as an investment for growth then one can still live a modest life, and help the society in creating employment, so that the people do not need to depend on charity. At the same time the question of hoarding is removed. Zakat as an investment therefore fulfils many of the Qur’anic requirements.
Note: There are verses in the Qur’an in which the word ‘sabeelillah‘ appears. For example:
(2:261) The likeness of those who spend their wealth in Allah’s way (sabeelillah) is as the likeness of a grain which groweth seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allah giveth manifold to whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.
(4:160-161) Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews We forbade them good things which were (before) made lawful unto them, and because of their much hindering from Allah’s way (sabeelillah). And of their taking usury when they were forbidden it, and of their devouring people’s wealth by false pretences. We have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a painful doom.
(47:38) Lo! Ye are those who are called to spend in the way of Allah (sabeelillah), yet among you there are some who hoard. And as for him who hoardeth, he hoardeth only for his soul. And Allah is Rich and ye are poor. And if ye turn away He will exchange you for some other folk, and they will not be the likes of you.
The literal meaning of sabeelillah is ‘Allah’s Path’. Traditionalists consider this synonymous with charity, even though in the whole of the Qur’an this word has never been used in that meaning. Effectively, it means spending freely: money, time, wealth or anything, in the path of Allah.
12.3.4 Business dealings (baiy) and trading (tejarat)
Business dealings and trading are two different practices as indicated in the following verses:
(24:37) Such people as remember Allah while trading or making baiy[…]
The nearest concept of baiy in this verse is business dealing which pertains to the dealings with money where the exchange of commodity is not involved. Outwardly, it would look similar to the practice of usury. However, it has a subtle and vital difference. When we understand this, the wording of following verse becomes clear.
(2:275) […]They say baiy is just like usury: whereas Allah permitteth baiy and forbiddeth usury[…]
As an example, a model of money lending based on baiy would be that profits and losses would be shared equitably. Alternatively, to repay the loan in such a way that it retained its original purchasing power. There could be no question of repaying in devalued money. In contrast, money lending based on usury, where money is lent at an agreed rate of interest, would be independent of whether the borrower makes a profit or loss out of the money lent.
Verse 2:282 below clarifies baiy as essentially a practice of mutual agreement designed to last over a period of time, which therefore, must be signed and witnessed. Trading on the other hand may be long term or across the table, where a commodity is exchanged for money. It excludes the practice of money dealing, without involvement of commodities.
(2:282) O ye who believe! When ye contract a debt for a fixed term, record it in writing[…] And call to witness, from among your men, two witnesses[…]
12.4 Qur’anic scheme of economics summarised5
- Free enterprise and right to personal holdings but in a rightful way.
- Lending or borrowing of money on fixed interest is forbidden. Usury in any form is not allowed.
- Usury to be replaced by zakat. Money to be invested freely, either directly or through the intermediaries known as Bait-ul-Mals (banks); and to share profits and losses of the institution where money is lent. Other clerical services like transfers, letter of credit, licensing should be performed on the tariff to be approved by the government.
- Individuals pay in charity in the manner ordained in the Qur’an (see 12.3.1), and must maintain the institution of free will and a free sum of money: the Qur’an has a depth of insight not to fix a precise percentage. It should be different from person to person and from time to time, the principle aim beingÂ the process of reversal of greed.
- The State would take by way of taxes from the society with the primary intention of removing excess andÂ redistributing wealth for general welfare (see 12.3.2).
- No one should be able to sell something he hadn’t already bought or paid for. It would not be possible to speculate in ‘futures’ as is done in the West, that is, without ever actually owning the goods. The fortunes men make in the City of London by financial transactions which would be strictly forbidden by Islamic Law.
- Fresh money would only come into circulation when goods and services of the corresponding value had been inducted into the society. This would effectively check price spirals, inflation, collapse of currencies, etc. Distribution of fresh money coming into circulation would be on mutually-agreed basis between the society members.
- An air of confidence would emerge so that people would come forward willingly, and make investments (see 12.3.3).
An economic system based on the Qur’anic principles of an equitable society and productive investment can effectively remove much of the chronic economic illnesses as suffered by the modern society.
- Freedom for Qur’an by Ahmad Nawaz and published by Ahmad Nawaz. Mr. Nawaz has dedicated his book for the service of mankind and as such there is no copyright restriction. The basic concepts are based on this book.
- Islam: Taking root in Europe by Sahib Mustaqim Bleher. Published by ‘Islamic Party of Britain’ in their official Part News report, ‘Common Sense’ dated Last Quarter 1992. Issue number 8. p. 10, 11.
- The Guardian: (i) News item on front page dated 7.3.87. (ii) Passages from the article Impossible Debt on Road to Global Ruin by F. Clairmonte and J. Cavanagh, dated 9.1.87.
- Zakah by Abdul Rehman Ansari. Published by IPCI, 481 Coventry Road, Small Heath, Birmingham B10 0JS. p. 5.
- Freedom for Qur’an by Ahmad Nawaz and published by Ahmad Nawaz. p. 167-169.